1. Articles should be prepared in English, based on the latest edition of The Chicago Manual of Style citation and reference system. Articles should not normally exceed 15,000 words, including footnotes.
  2. Page Margins: The size of top, bottom, left, and right margins of the text field should be one inch (2,54 cm) on sides, top and bottom.
  3. Font Type and Size: Times New Roman font should be used in the whole work (Text, title, footnote, legends for figures and tables, page numbers, etc.)
  4. The main text should be typed in Times New Roman, 12 point.
  5. Footnotes should be written in Times New Roman, 10 point and justified.
  6. Headings should be written in 12 point, capital letters, bold, and flush left. Only initial letters should be capital.
  7. The author’s name should be written with a space after the main title and the first letter of the first name should be capitalized and other letters should be small. All letters of the surname should be capital and the first name and the surname should be centred.
  8. Paragraph and Line Spacing: The main text should be justified on both sides. Line spacing should be double-space in the main text, all notes and bibliography; single space in quotations longer than three lines, table titles, and figure captions. Each new paragraph, block quotes (quotations longer than three lines) and hanging (bibliography) should begin with a ½ inch indent, except for the first sentence following a heading, which should begin flush left.
  9. Page numbers: The numbering of the pages should be given at the bottom and right, starting from the first page.
  10. Highlighting in Italic and Bold: Highlighting in italic and bold should be thrifty and consistent. Italics should be used in direct quotations in a foreign language such as technical terms, verses of Koran, hadiths, and poetical texts. Bold letters is used in headings.
  11. Transliteration: Foreign words accepted in English usage should be spelled in accordance with the New Oxford Dictionary of English or the Concise Oxford Dictionary,  Other foreign words must follow the IJMES transliteration system (If the source specified in the footnote is written in Arabic, Persian or Ottoman Turkish, it should be written in a transliteration system. References should not be translated and the original language should be preserved. The same rule applies to the author or works mentioned in the text.)
  12. Abstract: All articles must include an abstract, which should not exceed 300 words. The title of “abstract” should be bold, flush left. After the identification of the article is specified in the first line, the purpose, scope, method, and conclusion of the article should be written clearly and concisely. 3-10 keywords should be specified. Keywords are to be given in English only.
  13. References: All references used in the research should be included in this section. The references that are not mentioned in the research text are not included in the reference list.


Basically, two types of quotations, direct or cited and paraphrased or indirect, can be mentioned. Details on the subject are explained below in items:

  1. Cited or direct quotations in the text should be either be written in italics or given in double quotation marks (i.e. “ . . .”) and should be cited in accordance with the footnote system at the end of the quotation. Quotations less than three lines should be given in the text, while quotations longer than three lines should be given in blocks. Quotations of Quranic verses, hadiths, and verse texts are indicated in italics, not in quotes. Editorial corrections within direct quotations should appear within brackets (e.g. […]).
  2. Indirect (paraphrased) quotations are the transfer of the thoughts and explanations of other authors in terms of meaning, not literally. Indirect quotations are made as a summary or comment in the words of author of the study and given without quotation marks. Their essences are not changed. In both cases, the source cited (text, table, figure etc.) must be referred.
  3. As all information might be included in direct quotations so only certain parts of the information in the form of sentences, paragraphs or pages might be given. In this case, in order to show that certain words, various sentences, paragraphs, and pages were omitted, the omitted places are indicated with an ellipsis (…) in parenthesis.
  4. Additions are indicated in square brackets [XYZ] in direct quotations. Punctuation and translation errors as well as errors in letters, sentences, dates, places etc. are given in direct quotations without being corrected. However, the researcher can write an explanation note on the relevant place to correct the mistake in question.
  5. Indirect quotations: As a rule, quotations are made from the original source. If the original source is not available for justifiable reasons, then the second hand source can be quoted.

Page break footnote method

Footnotes should be numbered at the bottom of page and citations should not be shown in the text in page break footnote method.

  1. A space should be given after the number of footnotes and the text should be started later. No space should be given at the beginning of the second and subsequent lines.
  2. Page break footnotes are used for both reference and explanation. All kinds of additional information and comments that will disrupt the fluency, but clarify the subject can be written in a footnote as an explanation. However, these notes should be used carefully. The information that should be given directly in the text should not included in the text as an explanation. Besides, unimportant and irrelevant details should not be included. Some explanations that are too broad for the footnote can be included in the appendices section.
  3. Footnotes are also considered as a sentence, starting with a capital letter and ending with a period.
  4. The title of the author is not specified in the footnote.
  5. When referring to a source for the first time, all information about the work is given. There is no need to give all this information again when it is referred for the second time.
  6. If the publication date of the cited work is uncertain, “n.d.” abbreviation that means “no date” is used in place of date.

Illustrative Explanations for Page Break Footnote Method

  • When the source is cited for the first time, all information about the work is given.

William Chittick, The Self-Disclosure of God: principles of Ibn al-‘Arabi’s cosmology (Albany: State        University of New York, 1998), 277-9.

  • When the source is cited for the second time, the source information is given in the footnote as follows:

Author’s Surname, The Name of the Work, date of publication, and page number.

Chittick, The Self-Disclosure of God, 277-9.

  • Footnote begins with cf. (abbreviation for compare) in indirect quotations.

Cf. Massignon, Essai, 1922, 134.

  • Footnote does not begin with cf. in direct quotations.

Massignon, Essai, 1922, 134.

  • If a source is cited one more time immediately after it is used (if no other source is between the two footnotes), abbreviations of ibid. (cited work/ cited article/ the same place) is used in footnote.

Massignon, Essai, 1922, 134.

ibid. 124.

Chodkiewicz, “Female Sainthood”, 1994, 14.

  1. ibid. 151.


  • If there is more than one author, this case is indicated by the phrase “et al.”

Sells et al., Early Islamic Mysticism, 1996, 15.

  • If more than one source is wanted to show in the footnote, sources are separated from each other with semicolons.

Smith, An Introduction to the History of Mysticism, 1973, 64; Macdonald, Development of Muslim Theology, 1903, 227; cf.. Güneş, al-Ġazālī und der Sufismus, 2011, 22.

  • If works’ names are long, then they can be given in abbreviated form in the footnote. The full information is included in bibliography.

Shaikh, Sufi Narratives of Intimacy: Ibn ‛Arabī, Gender and Sexuality, 2012.

Shaikh, Sufi Narratives, 2012. (short form)

  • If the work has more than one volume, firstly the volume number and then the page number is given by putting colons.

al-Ġazzālī, Iḥyā’, 1998, IV:276.

İbn ‛Arabī, Futūḥāt, 1911, I:124.

  • While articles and chapters are shown in footnotes, article and chapter titles are written in prose and in quotation marks.

Murata, “Witnessing the Rose”, 1994, 352.

Zahir al-Din, “Man in Search of his Identity”, 1980, 103.

  • If the original source is not available and second hand source is used, the source is stated as follows:

‛Abd al-Ḥaḳḳ Muḥaddiṯ Dihlavī, Aḫbār al-Aḫyār; Jamal: “Female and Feminine”, 1988, quoted in 211.

‛Aṭṭār, Taḏkirat al-Awliyā’; Smith, Rabi‛a von Basra, 1997, quoted in 121.

Ibn ‛Arabī, Futūḥāt, 1911, II: 190; Ritter, Das Meer der Seele, 1978, quoted in 480.


Principles to be Followed in Writing References

  1. The works cited in the text, footnotes, figures, tables etc. directly or indirectly should be included in references. Works that are not cited should not be included in references.
  2. References should be given with double space, and ½ inch indent.
  3. References should be listed in alphabetical order of author’s surnames, if two or more works of the same author are in question, they should be placed in alphabetical order of the names of the works.
  4. The author’s name should not be written at the beginning of the second and subsequent works, but the — sign should be placed in its name.
  • Single Author Works in References

Author’s surname and name

Work’s name

Edition number (not required if it is the first edition)

Volume number, if any

If any, translator (trans.), edited by (ed.), or compiler (cd.)

Place of Publishing: Publishing House

Publishing date

Roded, Ruth, Women in Islamic Biographical Collections: From Ibn Sa‛d to Who is Who (London: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 1994).

  • Books with Two Authors in References

The first author’s surname and name


The second author’s surname and name

Work’s name

If any, volume number

If any, translator

Publication place: Publishing House

Publication date

Carl Ernst and Bruce Lawrence, Sufi Martyrs of Love: The Chishti Order in South Asia and Beyond (London: Palgrave-Macmillan, 2002), 70.


  • Books more than Two Authors in References

The first author’s surname and name, et. al (or the first author’s surname and name, the second author’s surname and name, and the third author’s surname and name)

Work’s name

If any, volume number

If any, translator

Place of publication: Publishing House

Publishing date

Jean-Claude Garcin et al., États, sociétés et cultures du monde musulman médiéval, Xe-XVe siècle, 3 vols. (Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, 1995–2000), 2:327–51.

  • Chapters in References

Author’s surname and name

“Title of chapter”

Work’s name

Cp. (Compiler) or ed. (editor)

Place of publishing: Publishing House

Publishing date

Starting and ending page numbers

Nasr, Seyyed Hossein, “The Quran as Foundation of Islamic Spirituality”, in Islamic Spirituality: Foundations, ed. Seyyed Hossein Nasr (New York: The Crossroad Publishing Company, 1987), 3-10.

Murata, Sachiko, “Witnessing the Rose: Ya’kūb Sarfī on the Vision of God in Women”, in Festschrift für Annemarie Schimmel: Gott ist schön und Er liebt die Schönheit, ed. Alma Giese and J. Christoph Bürgel (Bern: Lang Druck AG, 1994), 349-361.

  • Review Article

Author’s surname and name

“Article’s title”

Review’s name

Publishing date

If any, number

Starting and ending page numbers

Morris, James, “The Spiritual Ascension: Ibn ʿArabī and the Miʿrāj; Part II”, Journal of the American Oriental Society (1988), 108:63-77.

Küçük, Hülya, “From his Mother Nūr al-Anṣāriyya to his Šayḫ Fāṭima bt. Ibn al-Muṯannā: Important Female Figures around Muḥyī l-Dīn b. al-ʿArabī”, Arabica (2012), 59:6, 685-708.

  • Online Source

Alexander Knysh, “ʿĀbbādān (Ābādān),” in Encyclopaedia of Islam, Three, Brill Online, (hereafter EI3).


  • Articles from Daily Newspapers and Magazines

Joseph Dolye, “First Islamic Works”, The Times, 16 January 1988.

  • Article in Encyclopedia

Reynold A. Nicholson, “al-insān al-kāmil”, EI1; 3, 1913-1936, 510-511.

  • Qurʿanic references

While mentioning the verses of the Qurʿan, number of the sura and verse(s) should be given in parenthesis right after the quote.

God is the Light of the heavens and the earth; the likeness of His Light is as a niche wherein is a lamp (the lamp in a glass, the glass as it were a glittering star) kindled from a Blessed Tree, an olive that is neither of the East nor of the West whose oil wellnigh would shine, even if no fire touched it; Light upon Light; God guides to His Light whom He will. And God strikes similitudes for men, and God has knowledge of everything. (Qurʿan 24:35).

  • Hadiths

Example: Bukhārī, Riqāq, 12 (The explanation of this reference is: Hadith number 12, one of the hadiths of Bukhari’s Sahih with the title of Riqāq.)

Example: Musnad, II, 145. (This reference stands for: Hadith number 145 in the 2nd volume of Ahmad b. Hanbal’s Musnad)